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In response to the annexation, the Thirty-Three Orientals, led by Juan Antonio Lavalleja, declared independence on 25 August 1825 supported by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (present-day Argentina). Neither side gained the upper hand and in 1828 the Treaty of Montevideo, fostered by the United Kingdom through the diplomatic efforts of Viscount John Ponsonby, gave birth to Uruguay as an independent state.
The nation's first constitution was adopted on 18 July 1830.
The first permanent Spanish settlement was founded in 1624 at Soriano on the Río Negro.
In 1669–71, the Portuguese built a fort at Colonia del Sacramento.
The Uruguayan parties received support from warring political factions in neighboring Argentina, which became involved in Uruguayan affairs.
The siege of Montevideo was lifted and the Guerra Grande finally came to an end.
In 1813, the new government in Buenos Aires convened a constituent assembly where Artigas emerged as a champion of federalism, demanding political and economic autonomy for each area, and for the Banda Oriental in particular.
The Brazilian Empire became independent of Portugal in 1822.
In 18, the British army attempted to seize Buenos Aires and Montevideo as part of the Napoleonic Wars.
Montevideo was occupied by a British force from February to September 1807.
The Colorado effort to reduce Blancos to only three departments caused a Blanco uprising of 1897, which ended with the creation of 16 departments, of which the Blancos now had control over six. This division of power lasted until the President Jose Batlle y Ordonez instituted his political reforms which caused the last uprising by Blancos in 1904 that ended with the Battle of Masoller and the death of Blanco leader Aparicio Saravia.